The bipartisan measure passed 67-32, wrapping together the day-to-day budgets for 10 Cabinet departments and military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The House passed the bill Friday.
It provides details to a budget pact reached last summer, holding the Pentagon to the smallest increase in recent memory while imposing modest cuts on most domestic agencies.
The Senate also passed legislation Saturday that would extend a Social Security payroll tax cut and jobless benefits for just two months, setting the stage for the next fight until February.
While a partial victory for President Obama's year-end jobs agenda, the measure (which awaits House approval next week) contains a provision demanded by Republicans to pressure the White House into approving construction of a Canada-to-Texas oil pipeline that promises thousands of jobs.